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Vipassana Research Institute
Vocabulary
Vipassana Research Institute

                                               

                                                                      1. VOCABULARY

    


1. Masculine nouns ending in -a

  

Buddha / Tath±gata / Sugata

- the Buddha

manussa

- man, human being

nara / purisa

- man, person

kassaka

- farmer

br±hmaºa

- brahmin

putta

- son

m±tula

- uncle

kum±ra

- boy

v±ºija

- merchant

bh³p±la

- king

sah±ya / sah±yaka / mitta

- friend

   


   

Verbs

  

bh±sati

speaks

pacati

cooks

kasati

ploughs

bhuñjati

eats

sayati

sleeps

passati

sees

chindati

cuts

gacchati

goes

±gacchati

comes

dh±vati

runs

   


   

2. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a

  

Nominative case:

    

The case ending -o is added to the nominal base to form the nominative case singular number.

The case ending -± is added to the nominal base to form the nominative case plural number.

A noun thus inflected is used as the subject of a sentence.

 

Singular

 

1. nara + o = naro
2. m±tula + o = m±tulo
3. kassaka + o = kassako

Plural
1. nara + ± = nar±
2. m±tula + ± = m±tul±
3. kassaka + ± = kassak±

  


  

3. Present, third, singular and plural verbs.

 

In the verbs listed above bh±sa, paca, kasa etc. are verbal bases and -ti is the present tense, third person, singular termination.

   

The present tense, third person, plural is formed by adding the termination -nti to the base.

 

Singular

 
bh±sati - He speaks
pacati - He cooks
kasati - He ploughs

Plural
bh±santi - They speak
pacanti - They cook
kasanti - They plough

   


  

4. Examples in sentence formation

 

Singular

 
1. Naro bh±sati - The man speaks.
2. M±tulo pacati - The uncle cooks.
3. Kassako kasati - The farmer ploughs.

 

Plural

 
1. Nar± bh±santi - Men speak.
2. M±tul± pacanti - Uncles cook.
3. Kassak± kasanti - Farmers plough.

  


  

Exercise 1

   

5. Translate into English

 

1. Bh³p±lo bhuñjati.
2. Putt± sayanti

3. V±ºij± sayanti
4. Buddho passati
5. Kum±ro dh±vati.
6. M±tulo kasati.
7. Br±hmaº± bh±santi.
8. Mitt± gacchanti.
9. Kassak± pacanti.
10. Manusso chindati.
11. Puris± dh±vanti.
12. Sah±yako bhuñjati.
13. Tath±gato bh±sati.
14. Naro pacati.
15. Sah±y± kasanti.
16. Sugato ±gacchati.

 


  

6. Translate into P±li

    

1. Sons run.
2. The uncle sees.
3. The Buddha comes.
4. Boys eat.
5. Merchants go.
6. The man sleeps.
7. Kings go.
8. The brahmin cuts.
9. Friends speak.
10. The farmer ploughs.
11. The merchant comes.
12. Sons cut.
13. Uncles speak.
14. The boy runs.
15. The friend speaks.
16. The Buddha sees.

  


  

  

 

 

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                                           PRONUNCIATION | VERBS | VOCABULARY | GLOSSARY | INDEX

 

 

 

 


Vipassana Research Institute
Vipassana Research Institute