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Vocabulary
Vipassana Research Institute

  

1. Neuter nouns ending in -a

  

±paºa

shop, bazaar

puñña

merit

p±pa

evil, sin

kamma

deed, action

kusala

good

akusala

evil

dhana

wealth

dhañña

corn

b²ja

seed

dussa

cloth

c²vara

robe

m³la

root, money

rukkham³la

foot of a tree

tuº¹a

beak

vetana

wage, pay

paduma

lotus

g²ta

song

suvaººa / hirañña

gold

sacca

truth

p±n²ya

drinking water

citta

mind

  


 

Verbs

 

pariyesati

searches, seeks

±rabhati

begins

ussahati

tries

upasaªkamati

approaches

adhigacchati

understands, attains

g±yati

sings

±masati

touches, strokes

bh±yati

fears

cavati

departs, dies

uppajjati

is born

khipati

throws

vapati

sows

±kaªkhati

hopes

sibbati

sews

  


  

2. The Present Participle

 

Present participles are formed by adding -nta / m±na to the verbal base.
They function as adjectives and agree in gender, number and case with the nouns they qualify.
They are declined like -a ending nouns in the masculine and neuter.
(As the feminine gender has not been introduced thus far, the feminine gender of the present participle is explained in Lesson 21).

  

paca + nta / m±na =

pacanta / pacam±na =

cooking

gaccha + nta / m±na =

gacchanta / gaccham±na =

going

bhuñja + nta / m±na =

bhuñjanta / bhuñjam±na =

eating

tiµµha + nta / m±na =

tiµµhanta / tiµµham±na =

standing

vihara + nta / m±na =

viharanta / viharam±na =

dwelling

  


  

3. Examples in sentence formation

 

Singular

 

1. Bhatta½ pacanto / pacam±no puriso hasati. (Nom. case)
The man who is cooking rice laughs.

2. Vejjo bhatta½ pacanta½ / pacam±na½ purisa½ pakkosati. (Acc. case)
The doctor calls the man who is cooking rice.
 
3. Vejjo bhatta½ pacantena / pacam±nena purisena saha bh±sati. (Inst.case)
The doctor speaks with the man who is cooking rice.

  

Plural

 

1. Bhatta½ pacant± / pacam±n± puris± hasanti. (Nom. case)
The men who are cooking rice laugh.

2. Vejjo bhatta½ pacante / pacam±ne purise pakkosati. (Acc. case)
The doctor calls the men who are cooking rice.

3. Vejjo bhatta½ pacantehi / pacam±nehi purisehi saha bh±sati. (Inst.case)
The doctor speaks with the men who are cooking rice.

Similarly, the present participle can be declined in all cases to agree with the nouns they qualify.

  


  

Exercise 11

 

4. Translate into English

 

1. P±n²ya½ y±citv± rodanto d±rako mañcamh± patati.
2. Vatth±ni labhitu½ icchanto v±ºijo ±paºa½ gacchati.
3. Up±sako padum±ni ±d±ya vih±ra½ gaccham±no Buddha½ disv± pas²dati.
4. Sakuºo tuº¹ena phala½ haranto rukkhasm± uppatati.
5. C²vara½ pariyesantassa samaºassa ±cariyo c²vara½ dad±ti.
6. Araññe ±hiº¹anto luddako dh±vanta½ miga½ passitv± sarena vijjhati.
7. Uyy±ne ±hiº¹am±namh± kum±ramh± br±hmaºo padum±ni y±cati.
8. Rathena gaccham±nehi amaccehi saha ±cariyo hasati.
9. D±na½ dad±m±n± s²l±ni rakkham±n± manuss± sagge uppajjanti.
10. Dhañña½ ±kaªkhantassa purisassa dhana½ d±tu½ v±ºijo icchati.
11. Goºe hanant± rukkhe chindant± asappuris± dhana½ sa½haritu½ ussahanti.
12. Vih±ra½ upasaªkamanto Buddho dhamma½ bh±sam±ne s±vake passati.
13. Rukkham³le nis²ditv± g²t±ni g±yant± kum±r± naccitu½ ±rabhanti.
14. Suvaººa½ labhitu½ ussahant± manuss± pabbatasmi½ ±v±µe khaºanti.
15. Udaka½ p±tu½ icchanto s²ho udaka½ pariyesam±no vanamhi carati.
16. Vetana½ labhitu½ ±kaªkham±no naro rajak±ya duss±ni dhovati.
17. Samaºehi bh±sant± up±sak± sacca½ adhigantu½ ussahanti.
18. Magge sayanta½ sunakha½ udakena siñcitv± d±rako hasati.
19. S²la½ rakkhant± sappuris± manussalok± cavitv± devaloke uppajjanti.
20. Dhana½ sa½haritu½ ussahanto v±ºijo samudda½ taritv± d²pa½ gantu½ ±rabhati.
21. Goºe pariyesam±no vane ±hiº¹anto kassako s²ha½ disv± bh±yati.
22. Rukkhesu nis²ditv± phal±ni bhuñjam±n± kum±r± g²ta½ g±yanti.
23. Citta½ pas²ditv± dhamma½ adhigantu½ ussahant± nar± sagge uppajjanti.
24. Tuº¹ena piµakamh± maccha½ ±ka¹¹hitu½ icchanto k±ko sunakhamh± bh±yati.
25. Khetta½ kasitv± b²j±ni vapanto kassako dhañña½ labhitu½ ±kaªkhati.
26. Suriyassa ±lokena locanehi r³p±ni passant± manuss± loke j²vanti.
27. Rukkham³le nis²ditv± c²vara½ sibbantena samaºena saddhi½ up±sako bh±sati.
28. Rukkham³le sayantassa y±cakassa k±ye paºº±ni patanti.
29. V±ºijassa m³la½ datv± asse labhitu½ amacco ussahati.
30. Kh²ra½ pivitv± hasam±no d±rako patta½ mañcasmi½ khipati.

  


  

5. Translate into P±li.
  
1. The man washing clothes speaks with the boy going on the road.
2. The brahmin sees the deer coming out of the forest to drink water.
3. Goats in the park eat leaves falling from the trees.
4. Wicked men wish to see hunters killing deer.
5. The farmer sees birds eating seeds in his field.
6. Recluses who enter the city wish to worship the Buddha dwelling in the monastery.
7. Standing on the stairway the child sees monkeys sitting on the tree.
8. Boys give rice to fish moving in the water.
9. The sailor wishing to cross the sea asks for money from the king.
10. Men see with their eyes the light of the moon falling on the sea.
11. Lay devotees try to give robes to monks living in the monastery.
12. Wishing for merit virtuous men give alms to the monks and observe (rakkhanti) the precepts.
13. The man walks on the leaves falling from the trees in the forest.
14. The uncle gives a lotus to the child searching for flowers.
15. Having given the beggar some corn the fisherman enters the house.
16. The minister gives seeds to the farmers who plough their fields.
17. The dog tries to bite the hand of the man who strokes his body.
18. The Buddha´s disciples question the child crying on the road.
19. The uncle´s friend calls the boys singing songs seated under the tree.
20. Virtuous men give food to the monks who approach their houses.
21. Wise men who wish to be born in heaven practise (rakkhanti) virtue.
22. Seeing the jackal approaching the village the farmer tries to hit it with a stone.
23. Speaking the truth lay devotees try to understand the doctrine.
24. Having washed the bowl with water the hermit looks for drinking water.
25. Wise men who observe the precepts begin to understand the truth.

  


  

 

  

 

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