Vipassana Research Institute

Font Size:   Default   +1   +2

 

Vipassana Research Institute
Vipassana Research Institute

  

1. Conjugation of Verbs

  

The Present Tense, Active Voice (continued)

 
Verbs which have the base ending in -e are conjugated somewhat differently from what has been learnt so far. They can have two verbal bases, one ending in -e, the other ending in -aya, as in coreti and corayati.

Base core = to steal

  

 

Singular

Plural

3rd

(So) coreti

(Te) corenti

2nd

(Tva½) coresi

(Tumhe) coretha

1st

(Aha½) coremi

(Maya½) corema

  

Base coraya = to steal

  

 

Singular

Plural

3rd

(So) corayati

(Te) corayanti

2nd

(Tva½) corayasi

(Tumhe) corayatha

1st

(Aha½) coray±mi

(Maya½) coray±ma

  


 

2. Some verbs similarly conjugated are as follows:

  

deseti

preaches

cinteti

thinks

p³jeti

honours, offers

p³reti

fills

p²¼eti

oppresses

katheti

speaks

u¹¹eti

flies

udeti

(sun or moon) rises

ropeti

plants

manteti

discusses, takes counsel

±manteti

addresses

nimanteti

invites

oloketi

looks at

j±leti

kindles

ch±deti

covers

m±reti

kills

neti

leads, takes away

±neti

brings

µhapeti

keeps

p±teti

fells

p±leti

rules, governs

parivajjeti

avoids

obh±seti

illuminates

deti (dad±ti)

gives

  


  

3. N.B. Gerunds / absolutives and infinitives from the above verbs are formed retaining the -e in the base.

 

Gerunds - desetv±, cintetv±, p³jetv±, p³retv±, etc.
Infinitives - desetu½, cintetu½, p³jetu½, p³retu½, etc.

4. Verbs which have the base ending in -n± are conjugated as follows:

Base kiº± = to buy

  

 

Singular

Plural

3rd

(So) kiº±ti

(Te) kiºanti

2nd

(Tva½) kiº±si

(Tumhe) kiº±tha

1st

(Aha½) kiº±mi

(Maya½) kiº±ma

 

5. Some verbs similarly declined are as follows:

  

vikkiº±ti

sells

suº±ti

hears

min±ti

measures

gaºh±ti

takes

uggaºh±ti

learns

j±n±ti

knows

jin±ti

wins

p±puº±ti / pappoti

reaches

ocin±ti

picks, collects

pahiº±ti

sends

  

N.B. It should be observed that the present tense verbal terminations remain constant. Only the vikaraºa suffix, or the conjugational sign in between the root and the termination, shows variation.

  


 

6. Attention should be paid to the following forms:

 

Present Tense

Gerund / Absolutive

Infinitive

j±n±ti

ñatv± / j±nitv±

ñ±tu½

suº±ti

sutv± / suºitv±

sotu½ / suºitu½

p±puº±ti / pappoti

patv± / p±puºitv±

p±puºitu½ / pappotu½

gaºh±ti

gahetv± / gaºhitv±

gahetu½ / gaºhitu½

  

7. The two verbs bhavati / hoti (to be) and karoti (to do) occur frequently in the language.

Their gerunds and infinitives are as follows:

 

Gerund

bhavitv± / hutv±

katv±

Infinitive

bhavitu½ / hotu½

k±tu½

  

The verb atthi (to be) from root as and karoti (to do) from root k¥ are special verbs of frequent occurrence. They are conjugated as follows:

 

 

Singular

Plural

3rd

atthi

santi

2nd

asi

attha

1st

asmi / amhi

asma / amha

 

 

 

3rd

karoti

karonti

2nd

karosi

karotha

1st

karomi

karoma

  


  

Exercise 13

 

8. Translate into English

   

1. Buddho vih±rasmi½ sannipatant±na½ manuss±na½ dhamma½ deseti.
2. Buddhassa p³jetu½ cintento up±sako pupph±ni ocin±ti.
3. Te patte udakena p³rent± g²ta½ g±yanti.
4. Tumhe araññe vasante mige p²¼etv± asappuris± hotha.
5. Maya½ ±paºa½ gantv± v±ºijehi saddhi½ kathetv± dhañña½ vikkiº±ma.
6. Tva½ u¹¹enta½ suka½ disv± gaºhitu½ icchasi.
7. Pabbatamh± udenta½ canda½ passitu½ kum±ro gharamh± dh±vati.
8. Aha½ kassakehi saha khettasmi½ rukkhe ropemi.
9. Maya½ amaccehi saha mantent± p±s±dasmi½ ±sanesu nis²d±ma.
10. Tumhe Tath±gatassa s±vake nimantetv± d±na½ detha.
11. Up±sak± vih±ra½ gantv± d²pe j±letv± dhamma½ sotu½ nis²danti.
12. Luddako s²sa½ (head) dussena ch±detv± nis²ditv± sakuºe maretu½ ussahati.
13. So vane ±hiº¹ante goºe g±ma½ ±netv± v±ºij±na½ vikkiº±ti.
14. Tva½ ±paºehi bhaº¹±ni kiºitv± sakaµena ±netv± gehe µhapesi.
15. Tumhe kakacehi rukkhe chinditv± pabbatamh± p±tetha.
16. Dhammena manusse p±lent± bh³p±l± akusala½ parivajjenti.
17. Sacca½ ñ±tu½ icchanto aha½ samaºehi pañhe pucch±mi.
18. D±na½ datv± s²la½ rakkhant± sappuris± saggaloka½ p±puºanti.
19. Dhañña½ minanto kassako ±paºa½ netv± dhañña½ vikkiºitu½ cinteti.
20. Aha½ pattena p±n²ya½ pivanto dv±rasmi½ µhatv± magga½ olokemi.
21. So ±paºamh± kh²ra½ kiºitu½ putta½ pahiº±ti.
22. Maya½ dhamma½ uggaºhitu½ ussahant± paº¹itena saha mantema.
23. Corehi saddhi½ gehe bhinditv± manusse p²¼ent± tumhe asappuris± hotha.
24. Aha½ suvaººa½ pariyesam±ne d²pamh± ±gacchante v±ºije j±n±mi.
25. Aha½ ±cariyo homi, tva½ vejjo hosi.
26. Tva½ asappurisa, Buddhena desenta½ dhamma½ sutv± sappuriso bhavitu½ ussahasi.
27. Aha½ paº¹itehi saddhi½ mantento dhammena d²pa½ p±lento bh³p±lo asmi.
28. Var±he m±rent± cor± kassake p²¼ent± p±pakamm±ni karonti.
29. S²la½ rakkhant± puññakamm±ni karont± manuss± sagga½ pappotu½ ±kaªkhanti.
30. Akusala½ pah±ya p±pa½ parivajjetv± viharant± nar± sappuris± bhavanti.

 


  

9. Translate into P±li

 

1. Having picked fruits from the trees you send (them) to the market.
2. Having heard the Buddha preach the doctrine I become glad.
3. Thinking of collecting corn I go to the field with the farmer.
4. Singing songs you (pl.) look at the birds flying in the sky.
5. I advise the wicked man who oppresses the farmers in the village.
6. We dig pits to plant trees in the park.
7. We know the man who is lighting lamps in the monastery.
8. You (pl.) cross the sea with sailors to reach the island.
9. The king governing the island wins.
10. We begin to learn the dhamma from recluses living in the village.
11. Searching for the truth the wise man goes from city to city.
12. Avoiding the sleeping dog with his foot the child runs home.
13. Wishing to be born in heaven wise men fear to do evil.
14. Departing from the human world wicked men are born in hell (narake).
15. Having invited the hermit from the mountain the king gives him a robe.
16.Trying to understand the truth lay devotees become recluses.
17. Expecting to hear the monk preaching the dhamma lay devotees assemble in the monastery.
18. We see with our eyes, hear with our ears (sotehi), touch with our bodies.
19. I am the king governing the islands.
20. You (pl.) are wicked men who take counsel with thieves.
21. Good men begin to plant trees to protect the world.
22. Having heard the dhamma, the thief wishes to avoid evil.
23. Merchants keep clothes in shops to sell (them) to farmers coming from the villages.
24. The sick man (gil±na) is a messenger of the gods in the human world.
25. There are good men in the world who admonish wicked men.
26. Having picked lotuses from the water, the doctor goes to the monastery to listen to the dhamma.
27. Seeing the Buddha and being pleased the thief throws away the arrows.
28. Wishing to avoid evil I practise virtue.
29. We cook rice to give alms to the monks coming from the monastery.
30. You (pl.) go from island to island searching for gold with merchants.

  


  

 

  

 

                                                                     PREVIOUS LESSON | NEXT LESSON

      

                                                        PRONUNCIATION | VERBS | VOCABULARY | GLOSSARY

    

                                                                                       INDEX

 

 


Vipassana Research Institute
Vipassana Research Institute