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Vipassana Research Institute
Vipassana Research Institute


1. The Optative or the Potential Mood


The optative expresses mainly probability and advice, and ideas such as those conveyed by if, might, would, etc.

It is formed by adding -eyya to the verbal base before terminations.

Base paca = to cook





(So) paceyya =

If he would cook


(Tva½) paceyy±si =

If you would cook


(Aha½) paceyy±mi =

If I would cook






(Te) paceyyu½ =

If they would cook


(Tumhe) paceyy±tha =

If you would cook


(Maya½) paceyy±ma =

If we would cook



It should be observed that the terminations of the second and first persons are similar to those of the present tense.



2. The following particles are useful for construction of sentences.


sace / yadi = if
ca = and
pi = too, also
na = not
viya = like, similar



3. Examples in sentence formation




1. Sace so bhatta½ paceyya, aha½ bhuñjeyy±mi.
If he would cook rice I will eat.

2. Sace tva½ iccheyy±si, aha½ cora½ puccheyy±mi.
If you would like, I will question the thief.

3. Yadi aha½ nagare vihareyy±mi, so pi nagara½ ±gaccheyya.
If I dwell in the city, he too would come to the city.




1. Sace te bhatta½ paceyyu½, maya½ bhuñjeyy±ma.
If they cook rice we will eat.

2. Sace tumhe iccheyy±tha, maya½ core puccheyy±ma.
If you so wish, we will question the thieves.

3. Yadi maya½ nagare vihareyy±ma, te pi nagara½ ±gaccheyyu½.
If we dwell in the city, they too will come to the city.



Exercise 15


4. Translate into English


1. Sace tva½ dhamma½ suºeyy±si, addh± (certainly) tva½ Buddhassa s±vako bhaveyy±si.
2. Yadi te g²t±ni g±yitu½ uggaºheyyu½, aha½ pi uggaºheyy±mi.
3. Sace tva½ b²j±ni pahiºeyy±si, kassako t±ni (them) khette vapeyya.
4. Sace tumhe padum±ni ocineyy±tha, kum±r± t±ni Buddhassa p³jeyyu½.
5. Sace tva½ m³la½ gaºheyy±si, aha½ dussa½ ±dadeyy±mi.
6. Yadi maya½ bh³p±lena saha manteyy±ma amacc± na ±gaccheyyu½.
7. Sace tumhe rukkhe ropeyy±tha d±rak± phal±ni bhuñjeyyu½.
8. Sace maya½ sappuris± bhaveyy±ma, putt± pi sappuris± bhaveyyu½.
9. Sace bh³p±l± dhammena d²pe p±leyyu½, maya½ bh³p±lesu pas²deyy±ma.
10. Sace kassako goºa½ vikkiºeyya, v±ºijo ta½ kiºeyya.
11. Sace manusse p²¼ent± asappuris± g±ma½ ±gaccheyyu½ aha½ te ovadeyy±mi.
12. Yadi amacc± p±pa½ parivajeyyu½, manuss± p±pa½ na kareyyu½.
13. Sace tumhe pabbata½ ±ruheyy±tha, ±hiº¹ante mige ca rukkhesu carante makkaµe ca u¹¹ente sakuºe ca passeyy±tha.
14. Sace tva½ pattena p±n²ya½ ±neyy±si pip±sito (thirsty) so piveyya.
15. Kusalakamm±ni katv± tumhe manussaloke uppajitu½ ussaheyy±tha.
16. Sace so vejjo bhaveyya, aha½ ta½ (him) rodanta½ d±raka½ passitu½ ±neyy±mi.
17. Yadi putto p±pa½ kareyya aha½ ta½ (him) ovadeyy±mi.
18. Sace amacco paº¹ita½ ±cariya½ ±neyya maya½ dhamma½ uggaºheyy±ma.
19. Sace aha½ hatthena suva½ phusitu½ ussaheyy±mi so geh± uppateyya.
20. Yadi so vejja½ pakkositu½ iccheyya aha½ ta½ (him) ±neyy±mi.



5. Translate into P±li


1. If you cover the evil deeds your sons do, they will become thieves.
2. If you (pl.) want to become virtuous men avoid evil.
3. If we look with our eyes we will see objects in the world, if we look with our minds we will see good and evil.
4. If you (sg.) start singing a song, the children will start dancing.
5. If we depart from the human world we will not fear to be born in the human world.
6. If gods are born in the human world they will do meritorious deeds.
7. If you search for the truth you will approach the Buddha living in the monastery.
8. If you admonish the merchant he will become a virtuous man.
9. If I invite the monk he will come home to preach the dhamma.
10. If you are a good man you will not kill oxen roaming in the forest.
11. If you do work in the field you will get wealth and corn.
12. If the king wishes to govern the island righteously he will discuss with wise men and ministers.
13. If you work in the field you will see farmers ploughing.
14. I see boys playing in the park with a monkey.
15. If they want to see birds singing they will go to the park.
16. If you listen to the dhamma you will be able to live righteously.
17. If you avoid evil friends (p±pamitte) you will become a good man.
18. If the minister is not a good man we will not approach him.
19. If there are fruits on the tree I will climb to pick them (t±ni).
20. If I pick fruits you will eat them with friends.






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Vipassana Research Institute
Vipassana Research Institute