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Vipassana Research Institute
Vipassana Research Institute


1. The Imperative


The imperative mood expresses a command, benediction, prayer or wish.



Base paca = to cook





(So) pacatu =

Let him cook


(Tva½) paca,pac±hi =

You cook


(Aha½) pac±mi =

Let me cook





(Te) pacantu =

Let them cook


(Tumhe) pacatha =

You cook


(Maya½) pac±ma =

Let us cook



It should be observed that the second person plural and first person singular and plural have the same forms as in the present tense.

The prohibitive particle m± is also used with the imperative.



2. Examples in sentence formation




1. So v±ºij±na½ bhatta½ pacatu.
Let him cook rice for the merchants.

2. Tva½ rathena nagara½ gaccha / gacch±hi.
You go to the city in the vehicle.

3. Aha½ dhamma½ uggaºh±mi.
Let me learn the dhamma.




1. Te v±ºij±na½ bhatta½ pacantu.
Let them cook rice for the merchants.

2. Tumhe rathena nagara½ gacchatha.
You go to the city in the vehicle.

3. Maya½ dhamma½ uggaºh±ma.
Let us learn the dhamma.

The prohibitive particle m±

1. M± tumhe sacca½ parivajjetha.
You do not avoid the truth.

2. M± te uyy±namhi pupph±ni ocinantu.
Let them not pick flowers in the park.



Exercise 16


3. Translate into English


1. Bh³p±l± dhammena d²pa½ p±lentu.
2. M± manusso bh±yatu, sace so sacca½ j±n±ti, bh±satu.
3. Tumhe p±pa½ karonte putte ovadatha.
4. Sugato dhamma½ desetu, s±vak± ca up±sak± ca vih±rasmi½ nis²danti.
5. M± te p±pakamm±ni katv± manussalokamh± cavitv± narake (in purgatory) uppajjantu.
6. M± cor± kassak±na½ goºe m±rentu.
7. M± tva½ sunakha½ ±mas±hi, so ta½ (you) ¹aseyya.
8. Tumhe d²pe j±letv± vih±rasmi½ r³p±ni oloketha.
9. Tumhe asappurise ±mantetv± dhammena j²vitu½ anus±satha.
10. Putta, m± tva½ p±pamitte upasaªkama.
11. Sace tumhe saccam bh±situ½ ussaheyy±tha, tumhe sappuris± bhaveyy±tha.
12. Sace tva½ p±s±ºe khipeyy±si, k±k± ca sakuº± ca ±k±sa½ uppateyyu½.
13. M± d±raka p±n²ya½ pivitv± patta½ bhinda.
14. M± suvaººa½ coretv± gacchant± cor± samudda½ tarantu.
15. Up±saka, m± putte akkos±hi, samaºehi saddhi½ mantetv± putte anus±s±hi.



4. Translate into P±li


1. May the king ruling the island protect the people righteously.
2. Let the children playing in the park collect falling leaves.
3. Let the farmers and merchants assemble in the king´s park.
4. Let the sons climb the mountain to see lions, deer and birds.
5. Do not cut trees in forests if you wish to protect deer.
6. Let the child not come down the stairway, he will fall.
7. Let the farmer plough the fields and sow seeds, let him not kill goats.
8. Let the parrots fly taking fruits with their beaks.
9. Sons, do not commit sins, live righteously.
10. May the disciples of the Buddha get alms and robes.
11. Let the children come out of the house and see the moon rising from the mountain.
12. Boys, do not go and kill deer in the forest with the hunter.
13. You (pl.) run home and bring water for the farmers ploughing the field.
14. Do not ask questions from the king´s messenger.
15. You lay devotees should try to avoid evil and do good deeds.






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Vipassana Research Institute
Vipassana Research Institute