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Vipassana Research Institute
Vipassana Research Institute

  

1. The Past Tense

  

Conjugation of verbs with the base ending in -a.

 


  

Base paca = to cook

 

Singular

 

3rd

(So) apaci, paci =

He cooked

2nd

(Tva½) apaci, paci =

You cooked

1st

(Aha½) apaci½, paci½ =

I cooked

 

Plural

 

3rd

(Te) apaci½su, paci½su =

They cooked

2nd

(Tumhe) apacittha, pacittha =

You cooked

1st

(Maya½) apacimha, pacimha =

We cooked

 

 

It should be noted that a- in apaci, apaci½su etc. is not a negative prefix.
It is the augment (optional) denoting the past tense.

Verbs whose bases end in -n± are also conjugated in the past tense as above.

 


  

Conjugation of verbs with the base ending in -e

 

Base core = to steal

 

Singular

 

3rd

(So) coresi, corayi =

He stole

2nd

(Tva½) coresi =

You stole

1st

(Aha½) coresi½, corayi½ =

I stole

 

Plural

 

3rd

(Te) coresu½, corayi½su =

They stole

2nd

(Tumhe) corayitha =

You stole

1st

(Maya½) corayimha =

We stole

 


  

2. Examples in sentence formation

 

Singular

 

1. Bh³p±lo d²pe cari / acari
The king wandered in the island.

Samaºo dhamma½ desesi
The monk preached the dhamma.

2. Tva½ bhaº¹±ni vikkiºi
You sold goods.

Tva½ pupph±ni p³jesi
You offered the flowers.

3. Aha½ pabbata½ ±ruhi½
I climbed the mountain.

Aha½ d²pa½ j±lesi½ / j±layi½
I lit the lamp.

 

Plural

 

1. Bh³p±l± d²pesu cari½su / acari½su -
Kings wandered in the islands.

Samaº± dhamma½ desesu½ / desayi½su
Monks preached the dhamma.

2. Tumhe bhaº¹±ni vikkiºittha
You sold goods.

Tumhe pupph±ni p³jayittha
You offered flowers.

3. Maya½ pabbate ±ruhimha -
We climbed mountains.

Maya½ d²pe j±layimha -
We lit lamps.

   


    

Exercise 17

 

3. Translate into English

   

1. Kassako khetta½ kasitv± nah±yitu½ udaka½ otari.
2. Uggaºhant±na½ d±rak±na½ d±tu½ ±cariy± kusum±ni ±hari½su.
3. Up±sak± ±sanehi uµµhahitv± dhamma½ desetu½ upasaªkamanta½ samaºa½ vandi½su.
4. Nagaresu kamm±ni katv± vetane labhitu½ ±kaªkham±n± nar± g±mehi nikkhami½su.
5. ¾cariyo ±sana½ dussena ch±detv± samaºa½ nis²ditu½ nimantesi.
6. Kum±ro dv±ra½ vivaritv± rukkhamh± oruhante v±nare passam±no aµµh±si (stood).
7. Paº¹ito goºe coretv± akusala½ karonte nare pakkositv± ovadi.
8. Y±cakassa putt± rukkhehi patant±ni phal±ni sa½haritv± ±paºasmi½ vikkiºi½su.
9. Kassako dhañña½ minitv± v±ºijassa vikkiºitu½ pahiºi.
10. Dhamma½ uggaºhitv± samaºo bhavitu½ ±kaªkham±no amacco ±cariya½ pariyesam±no Buddha½ upasaªkami.
11. Sace tumhe g±ma½ p±puºeyy±tha mitte olokeyy±tha.
12. Paº¹itamh± pañhe pucchitv± sacca½ j±nitu½ m±tulo ussahi.
13. P±s±ºamhi µhatv± aja½ kh±danta½ s²ha½ disv± v±nar± bh±yi½su.
14. Rukkham³le nis²ditv± git±ni g±yant±na½ kum±r±na½ k±yesu paºº±ni ca pupph±ni ca pati½su.
15. Tumhe dhana½ sa½haram±n± m± samudda½ taritv± d²pa½ gacchatha.
16. ¾paºasmi½ bhaº¹±ni vikkiºantassa v±ºijassa ratho atthi.
17. Aha½ puttassa d±tu½ dussa½ sibbanto g²ta½ g±yi½.
18. S³kar± ca sunakh± ca khette ±v±µe khaºi½su.
19. Puris± rukkham³le nis²ditv± t±pasena bh±sam±na½ suºi½su.
20. Luddakena saddhi½ vane ±hiº¹ante putte ±mantetv± kassak± akkosi½su.
21. M± tva½ suvaººapatta½ vikkiºitv± khagge kiº±hi.
22. So bhaº¹±ni ca khetta½ ca goºe ca putt±na½ daµv± geha½ pah±ya samaºo bhavitu½ cintesi.
23. Dhammena j²vant± sappuris± mige na m±resu½.
24. Aha½ sop±na½ ±ruhi½, te sop±namh± oruhi½su.
25. Sah±yak± udaka½ otaritv± nah±yant± padum±ni ocini½su.

 


   

4. Translate into P±li

   

1. The child sprinkled the lotuses with water and honoured the Buddha with them.
2. Having received the pay the men went to the market and bought goods.
3. The fisherman brought fish from the sea and sold them to the farmers.
4. If you go to bathe wash the clothes of the children.
5. The parrots and the crows flew into the sky from the trees.
6. Do not scold the children playing under the tree with the dog.
7. I spoke to the people sitting in the park having assembled to see the king.
8. We got frightened seeing a serpent enter the house.
9. I gave water to my son eating rice together with his friend.
10. Do not do evil, do good to enter heaven after departing from the human world.

   


 

 

 

 

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Vipassana Research Institute
Vipassana Research Institute