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Vipassana Research Institute
Vipassana Research Institute

 

1. The Past Participle

    

Past participles are mostly formed by adding -ta to the root with or without the connecting vowel -i-

  

 

pacati

- pac + i + ta

= pacita

= cooked

bh±sati

- bh±s + i + ta

= bh±sita

= spoken

y±cati

- y±c + i + ta

= y±cita

= begged

deseti

- dis´ + i + ta

= desita

= preached

p³jeti

- p³j + i + ta

= p³jita

= honoured

gacchati

- gam + ta

= gata

= gone

hanati

- han + ta

= hata

= killed

nayati / neti

- n² + ta

= n²ta

= led

 

 The past participle is also formed from some roots by adding -na.

  

chindati

- chid + na

= chinna

= cut

bhindati

- bhid + na

= bhinna

= broken

nis²dati

- ni + sad + na

= nisinna

= seated

tarati

- t¥ + na

= tiººa

= crossed

                    


 

2. Past participles have a passive meaning when they are formed from transitive verbs, but from intransitive verbs they have an active meaning.

   

They are declined in the three genders, as -a ending nouns in the masculine and the neuter, and -± ending nouns in the feminine.

Pacati, chindati, nimanteti are transitive verbs. Therefore:

pacito odano = the rice that is cooked (passive meaning)

chinna½ paººa½ = the leaf that is cut (passive meaning)

nimantit± kaññ± = the girl who is invited (passive meaning)

But gacchati, patati, tiµµhati are intransitive verbs. Therefore:

manusso gato (hoti) = the man has gone (active meaning)

puppha½ patita½ (hoti) = the flower has fallen (active meaning)

kaññ± µhit± (hoti) = the girl has stood (active meaning)

 


 

3. The following are some past participles

 

kasati

- kasita, kaµµha

pucchati

- pucchita, puµµha

pacati

- pacita, pakka

¹asati

- daµµha

phusati

- phuµµha

pavisati

- paviµµha

±masati

- ±masita, ±maµµha

labhati

- laddha, labhita

±rabhati

- ±raddha

bhavati

- bh³ta

bhuñjati

- bhuñjita, bhutta

vapati

- vutta

vasati

- vuttha

±siñcati

- ±sitta

khipati

- khitta

dhovati

- dhovita, dhota

pajahati

- pah²na

vivarati

- vivaµa

pivati

- p²ta

cavati

- cuta

hanati

- hata

nikkhamati

- nikkhanta

j±n±ti

- ñ±ta

suº±ti

- suta

min±ti

- mita

gaºh±ti

- gahita

kiº±ti

- k²ta

p±puº±ti

- patta

karoti

- kata

tiµµhati

- µhita

harati

- haµa

kujjhati

- kuddha

dad±ti

- dinna

pas²dati

- pasanna

(passati)

- diµµha, (d¥œ)

muñcati

- mutta

  


    

4. Examples in sentence formation

   

Up±sakehi vih±ra½ paviµµho Buddho diµµho hoti
The Buddha who entered the monastery was seen by the lay devotees.

Te Buddhena desita½ dhamma½ suºi½su
They listened to the dhamma preached by the Buddha.

D±rik±ya ±haµ±ni bhaº¹±ni amm± piµakesu pakkhipi
The mother put in baskets the goods brought by the girl.

V±nijo patitassa rukkhassa s±kh±yo chindi
The merchant cut the branches of the fallen tree.

Maya½ udakena ±sittehi pupphehi Buddha½ p³jema
We may worship the Buddha with flowers sprinkled with water.

Kassakena kasite khette s³karo sayati
A pig sleeps in the field ploughed by the farmer.

 


 

Exercise 19

 

5. Translate into English

 

1. Amm±ya mañj³s±ya½ pakkhitta½ suvaººa½ d±rik± na gaºhi.
2. Dhot±ni vatth±ni gahetv± bhariy± udakamh± uttari.
3. Kassakehi uyy±ne ropitesu rukkhesu phal±ni bhavi½su.
4. Buddh± devehi ca narehi ca p³jit± honti.
5. Udakena p³rita½ patta½ gahetv± vanit± geha½ ±gat± hoti.
6. Adhammena (unrighteously) d²pa½ p±lentena bh³p±lena p²¼it± manuss± kuddh± honti.
7. Pakka½ (ripe) phala½ tuº¹ena gahetv± u¹¹enta½ suva½ aha½ apassi½.
8. Udento suriyo br±hmaºena namassito hoti.
9. Amm±ya j±lita½ d²pa½ ±daya putto vih±ra½ paviµµho hoti.
10. Vanit±ya dussena ch±dite ±sane samaºo nis²ditv± sannipatit±ya paris±ya dhamma½ desesi.
11. Kassakena khetta½ ±n²t± goº± tiºa½ kh±dant± ±hiº¹i½su.
12. V±ºij± mañj³s±su µhapit±ni duss±ni na vikkiºi½su
13. Sace tva½ sacca½ j±neyy±si m± putta½ akkosa.
14. N±v±ya nikkhant± nar± samudda½ taritv± d²pa½ p±puºitv± bhariy±hi saddhi½ kathent± modanti.
15. Magge µhite v±ºijassa sakaµe aha½ kaññ±ya ±n²t±ni bhaº¹±ni µhapesi½.
16. Dhammena laddhena dhanena putte posetv± j²vant± manuss± devat±hi rakkhit± honti.
17. S±vakehi ca up±sakehi ca pariv±rito Buddho vih±rassa ch±y±ya nisinno hoti.
18. Amm±ya p±pehi niv±rit± putt± sappuris± hutv± dhamma½ suºanti.
19. Kassake p²¼ent± cor± paº¹itena anus±sit± sappuris± bhavitu½ v±yamant± up±sakehi saddhi½ uyy±ne rukkhe ropenti.
20. Vanit± putt±ya paµiy±ditamh± bhattamh± khud±ya p²¼itassa y±cakassa thoka½ (little) datv± p±n²ya½ ca dadi / ad±si.
21. Sabh±ya½ nis²ditv± d±rik±ya g±yita½ g²ta½ sutv± kaññ±yo modi½su.
22. Amaccena nimantit± puris± s±l±ya½ nis²ditu½ asakkont± (unable) uyy±ne sannipati½su.
23. Kassakehi khettesu vuttehi b²jehi thoka½ (little) sakuº± kh±di½su.
24. Kum±rehi rukkham³le nil²yitv± sayanto sappo diµµho hoti.
25. V±ºijena d²pamh± ±haµ±ni vatth±ni kiºitu½ vanit±yo icchanti.
26. Sace bh³p±lo dhammena manusse rakkheyya te kamm±ni katv± d±rake posent± sukha½ vindeyyu½.
27. Puttena y±cit± amm± mitt±na½ odana½ paµiy±desi.
28. Amaccena puµµha½ pañha½ adhigantu½ asakkonto cor±na½ d³to cintetu½ ±rabhi.
29. Corehi guh±ya½ nil²yit±ni bhaº¹±ni passitv± v±nar± t±ni (them) ±d±ya rukkhe ±ruhi½su.
30. Aha½ pariyesita½ dhamma½ adhigantv± mod±mi.

 


  

6. Translate into P±li

 

1. The man who came to the assembly could not speak with the ministers.
2. The child ran to the shop taking the money given by the mother.
3. The king is seated in the chariot drawn by horses.
4. Having discussed with the wise man the farmers sent a messenger to the king.
5. The children went out of the open door.
6. The women who got down to the water washed clothes and bathed.
7. Buddhas and their disciples are worshipped by gods and men.
8. The merchant sold the clothes sewn by women.
9. I did not take the flowers and fruits brought by the girl from the forest
10. Being chased by the dog, the girls quickly (s²gha½) ran home.
11. The teacher having seen the evil deed done by the girl advised her.
12. We did not light the lamps prepared by the women.
13. You do not drag the branches cut by the farmer from the mountain.
14. Without getting the pay for the work done, the woman is angry.
15. Do not ask for fruits from the boy sitting on the branch.
16. The woman who is scolded by the brahmin cries, seated at the door.
17. The girl being called by the mother ran home to eat rice.
18. The men who tried to cut the creepers started pulling the branches.
19. The farmer who makes a living righteously, ploughing his fields experiences happiness with his wife and children.
20. Deities who have departed from the world of gods and are born in the human world rejoice listening to the dhamma preached by the Buddha.
21. The thieves who were instructed by the monk became good men.
22. There were no fruits on the trees planted by the farmer.
23. Bitten by the dog the girl ran home and cried.
24. The minister is not known to the doctor.
25. Seated under the tree the girls played with sand.
26. Sons, do not drink liquor.
27. Mothers prevent children from evil.
28. I gave water to the dog oppressed with thirst.
29. Seeing the hunter coming we hid among the trees.
30. We prepared alms with faith and gave to the monks.

 


 

 

 

 

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Vipassana Research Institute
Vipassana Research Institute