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Vipassana Research Institute
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1. The Present Participle (contd.)

 

This lesson is a continuation of Lesson 11 and should be studied together with that lesson.

It was learnt in Lesson 11 that -nta / -m±na are added to the base of verbs which end in -a, to form the present participle masculine and neutuer genders. e.g.:

 

paca + nta

= pacanta

paca + m±na

= pacam±na

 


They are declined like -a ending nouns in these two genders.
Further it should be noted that with verbs whose base ends in -e / -aya, -nta is usually added to the base ending in -e; and -m±na is added to the base ending in -aya. e.g.:

 

core + nta

= corenta

coraya + m±na

= corayam±na

 


With verbs whose base ends in -n± both -nta / -m±na are generally added, but the -n± is shortened to -na. e.g.:

 

kiº± + nta

= kiºanta

kiº± + m±na

= kiºam±na

suº± + nta

= suºanta

suº± + m±na

= suºam±na

 

Present participles ending in -nta occur more frequently in P±li literature than those ending in -m±na.

 


   

2. The present participle feminine gender is formed by adding -nt² / -m±n± to the verbal base. e.g.:

paca + nt²

= pacant²

paca + m±n±

= pacam±n±

core + nt²

= corent²

coraya + m±n±

= corayam±n±

kiº± + nt²

= kiºant²

kiº± + m±n±

= kiºam±n±

 


When -nt² is added, the present participle feminine is declined like feminine nouns ending in -². When -m±n± is added it is declined like feminine nouns ending in -±.

Declension of pacant²

 

 

Singular

Plural

Nom.

pacant²

pacant², pacantiyo

Voc.

pacant²

pacant², pacantiyo

Acc.

pacanti½

pacant², pacantiyo

Ins.

pacantiy±

pacant²hi (pacant²bhi)

Abl.

pacantiy±

pacant²hi (pacant²bhi)

Dat.

pacantiy±

pacant²na½

Gen.

pacantiy±

pacant²na½

Loc.

pacantiy±, pacantiya½

pacant²su

 


 

3. Examples in sentence formation

 

Singular

 

Amm± bhatta½ pacant² kaññ±ya saddhi½ katheti.
Cooking rice the mother speaks with the girl.

Kaññ± bhatta½ pacanti½ amma½ passati.
The girl sees the mother cooking rice.

Kaññ± bhatta½ pacantiy± amm±ya udaka½ deti.
The girl gives water to the mother cooking rice.

   

Plural

 

Bhatta½ pacantiyo amm±yo kaññ±hi saddhi½ kathenti.
Cooking rice mothers speak with girls.

Kaññ±yo bhatta½ pacantiyo amm±yo passanti.
Girls see mothers cooking rice.

Kaññ±yo bhatta½ pacant²na½ amm±na½ udaka½ denti.
Girls give water to mothers cooking rice.

Similarly, the present participle can be declined in all cases to agree in gender, number and case with the nouns they qualify.

 


 

Exercise 21

 

4. Translate into English
 
1. Khette phal±ni corent² d±rik± kassaka½ disv± bh±yitv± dh±vitu½ ±rabhi.
2. Buddhassa s±vakena desita½ dhamma½ sutv± yuvati sacca½ adhigantu½ icchant² amm±ya saddhi½ mantesi.
3. Sayanta½ sunakha½ ±masant² kum±r² gehadv±re nisinn± hoti.
4. R±jin² n±r²hi puµµhe pañhe vyakaront² sabh±ya½ nisinn± parisa½ ±mantetv± katha½ kathesi.
5. Aµavi½ gantv± rukkha½ chinditv± s±kh±yo ±ka¹¹hantiyo itthiyo sig±le disv± bh±yi½su.
6. Gehadv±re nis²ditv± dussa½ sibbant² bhagin² g²ta½ g±yati.
7. Asappuriso p±pakamm±ni paµicch±detv± up±sakehi saddhi½ sallapanto vih±rasmi½ ±sane nisinno hoti.
8. S±µakena veµhetv± nil²yita½ suvaººa½ passitu½ ±kaªkham±n± yuvati ovarakassa (room) dv±ra½ vivari.
9. Sace tva½ mula½ vissajjetu½ iccheyy±si, m± vattha½ kiº±hi.
10. Sace tumhe bh³p±lassa d³ta½ pesetha amacce pi ±rocetha.
11. Kassako chinn± sakh±yo khettamh± n²haritv± aµaviya½ pakkhipi.
12. Pokkaraºiy± t²re (bank) µhatv± kadaliphala½ kh±dant² kaññ± bhaginiy± dinna½ paduma½ gaºhi.
13. Amh±ka½ (our) hatthap±desu v²sati (twenty) aªguliyo santi.
14. Rattiy± geh± nikkhamitu½ bh±yant² kaññ± dv±ra½ na vivari.
15. Sace tva½ yaµµhiy± kukkura½ pahareyy±si so ¹aseyya.
16. Maya½ sappuris± bhavitu½ ±kaªkham±n± samaºe upasaªkamma dhamma½ sutv± kusala½ k±tu½ ±rabhimha.
17. P±pakammehi anubandhit± asappuris± cor± niraye (purgatory) uppajjitv± dukkha½ vindanti.
18. M± puñña½ parivajjetv± p±pa½ karotha, sace kareyy±tha manussalokamh± cavitv± dukkha½ vindissatha.
19. Sace tumhe sagge uppajjitv± moditu½ patthetha puññ±ni karotha.
20. Sacca½ ñ±tu½ ussahant± br±hmaº± sah±yakehi saha mantayi½su.
21. N±riy± pañjare (cage) pakkhitt± suk± kadaliphala½ kh±dant± nisinn± honti.
22. Goºa½ viheµhetu½ na icchanto v±ºijo sakaµamh± bhaº¹±ni n²haritva bh³miya½ nikkhipitv± kassaka½ ±rocesi.
23. Aµaviya½ viharant± mig± ca goº± ca var±h± ca s²hamh± bh±yanti.
24. Samaº± saddh±ya up±sakehi dinna½ bhuñjitv± sacca½ adhigantu½ v±yamant± s²l±ni rakkhanti.
25. Rattiy± nikkhant± doºi nadi½ taritv± pabh±te (in the morning) d²pa½ p±puºi.
26. Gehassa ch±y±ya µhatv± d±rik±ya bh³miya½ nikkhitta½ odana½ sunakho kh±ditu½ ±rabhi.
27. Bhariy±ya n±¼iy± mita½ dhañña½ ±d±ya kassako ±paºa½ gato hoti.
28. U¹¹ente k±ke disv± v±luk±ya ca udakena ca k²¼ant² d±rik± hasam±n± dh±vi.
29. Ratha½ p±jetu½ (to drive) uggaºhanto puriso dakkho (clever) rath±cariyo bhavitu½ v±yami.
30. Vivaµamh± dv±ramh± nikkhant± kum±r± pañjarehi mutt± sakuº± viya (like) uyy±na½ dh±vi½su.

 


 

5. Translate into P±li

 

1. Seated on the bed the girl drank the milk given by her mother.
2. Taking the pots (ghaµe) and talking the women went to the river to bring water.
3. Without wishing to harass the bird the woman released him from the cage (pañjara).
4. Unable (asakkoti) to pick the fruits from the tree the young girl called the farmer.
5. There is no (natthi) milk in the bowl of the crying child.
6. The girls who were singing under the tree started dancing.
7. Being chased by the hunter and his dogs the deer ran into the forest.
8. Wishing to get profit the women sold garments in shops.
9. In order to buy oil (tela) to light lamps the boy went from shop to shop.
10. I gave the box to the girl sitting in the shade of the tree.
11. The girls laughed pulling the creeper from the tree.
12. They who oppress women and children are wicked men.
13. We see with our eyes the rays of the sun falling on the ground.
14. Hitting with a stick the woman killed the serpent entering the house.
15. Putting fruits and flowers in boxes sisters sat at the open door.
16. If you will come out of water and protect the child I will step into the pond and bathe.
17. We got angry with the women committing evil and left the hall.
18. Do not shoot the cows and deer roaming in the park, the king and queen will get angry.
19. May the king and his ministers not oppress the people living in the island.
20. I gave rice to the starving dogs walking on the road.

 


  

 

 

 

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Vipassana Research Institute