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Vipassana Research Institute
Vipassana Research Institute

 

1. The Future Passive Participle

 

The future passive participle or the potential participle as it is sometimes called, is formed by adding -tabba / -an²ya to the base of the verb; -tabba is mostly added with the connecting vowel -i-.

   

These participles are declined like a ending nouns in the masculine and neuter genders, and like ± ending nouns in the feminine. They express ideas such as ‘must,´ ‘should be´ and ‘fit to be.´

 

pacati

- pacitabba / pacan²ya

bhuñjati

- bhuñjitabba / bhojan²ya

karoti

- k±tabba / karaº²ya

 


 

2. Examples in sentence formation

 

Amm± pacitabba½ / pacan²ya½ taº¹ula½ (raw rice) piµake µhapesi.
The mother kept the (raw) rice which is to be cooked in the basket.

D±rik±ya bhuñjitabba½ / bhojan²ya½ odana½ aha½ na bhuñjiss±mi.
I will not eat the rice which should be eaten by the girl.

Kassakena k±tabba½ / karaº²ya½ kamma½ k±tu½ tva½ icchasi.
You wish to do the work that should be done by the farmer.

   


 

Exercise 22

 
3. Translate into English

 

1. Up±sakehi samaº± vanditabb± honti.
2. Mañj³s±ya½ nikkhipitabba½ suvaººa½ m± mañcasmi½ µhapehi.
3. Sappuris± p³jan²ye p³jenti, asappuris± tath± (likewise) na karonti.
4. Bh³p±lena rakkhitabba½ d²pa½ amacc± na samm± (well) p±lenti.
5. Manussehi dhammo uggaºhitabbo, sacca½ adhigantabba½ hoti.
6. Kum±r²hi ±haµ±ni pupph±ni udakena ±siñcitabb±ni honti.
7. Corena gahita½ bhaginiy± dhana½ pariyesitabba½ hoti.
8. Uyy±ne ropit± rukkh± na chinditabb± honti.
9. Dhotabb±ni duss±ni gahetv± yuvatiyo hasam±n± pokkharaºi½ otari½su.
10. Samaºehi ovaditabb± kum±r± vih±ram na gami½su.
11. Kassakena kasitabba½ khetta½ vikkiºitu½ v±ºijo ussahi.
12. ¾paºesu µhapit±ni vikkiºitabb±ni bhaº¹±ni kiºitu½ te na icchi½su.
13. Amm± kh±dan²y±ni ca bhojan²y±ni ca paµiy±detv± d±rak±na½ deti.
14. Manussehi d±n±ni d±tabb±ni, s²l±ni rakkhitabb±ni, puññ±ni k±tabb±ni.
15. Goº±na½ d±tabb±ni tiº±ni kassako khettamh± ±hari.
16. Mig± p±n²ya½ udaka½ pariyesant± aµaviya½ ±hiº¹i½su.
17. Darik±ya d±tu½ phal±ni ±paº±ya v± (or) khettamh± v± ±haritabb±ni honti.
18. Kathetabba½ v± akathetabba½* v± aj±nanto asappuriso m± sabh±ya½ nis²datu.
19. Tumhe bh³p±l± amaccehi ca paº¹itehi ca samaºehi ca anus±sitabb± hotha.
20. Up±sakena puµµho pañho paº¹itena vy±k±tabbo hoti.
21. Bh³p±lassa uyy±ne vasant± mig± ca sakun± ca luddakehi na hantabb± honti.
22. Kusala½ aj±nitv± p±pa½ karont± kum±r± na akkositabb±, te samaºehi ca paº¹itehi ca sappurisehi ca anus±sitabb±.
23. Asappuris± parivajjetabb±, m± tumhe tehi saddhi½ (with them) g±me ±hiº¹atha.
24. Sur± na p±tabb±, sace piveyy±tha tumhe gil±n± bhavissatha.
25. Dhammena j²vant± manuss± devehi rakkhitabb± honti.

 


 

4. Translate into P±li

 

1. At night people should light lamps.
2. The merchant brought horses to be sold to the farmers.
3. Objects should be seen with eyes, tastes (ras±ni) should be enjoyed with the tongue.
4. The dog should not be hit with sticks and stones.
5. People in the island should be protected by the king and his ministers.
6. Flowers should not be picked by men walking in the park.
7. The corn should be measured by the farmer with his wife.
8. Men should not do evil.
9. Grass and water should be given to oxen and goats.
10. The assembly should be addressed by the teacher´s sister.
11. The lions sleeping in the caves should not be approached by men.
12. The mother´s clothes should be washed by the girl.

 


 

 

 

 

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Vipassana Research Institute
Vipassana Research Institute