Vipassana Research Institute

Font Size:   Default   +1   +2

 

Vipassana Research Institute
Vipassana Research Institute

    

1. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -u / -ar

  

Some masculine nouns have two bases ending in -u and -ar.
They express the agent or a relationship.

Satthu / satthar - teacher (lit., he who admonishes)

 

 

Singular

Plural

Nom.

satth±

satth±ro

Voc.

satth±, sattha

satth±ro

Acc.

satth±ra½

satth±ro

Ins.

satth±r±

satth±rehi, satth³hi

Abl.

satth±r±

satth±rehi, satth³hi

Dat.

satthu, satthuno, satthussa

satth±r±na½, satth³na½

Gen.

satthu, satthuno, satthussa

satth±r±na½, satth³na½

Loc.

satthari

satth±resu, satth³su

  


    
2. Some words similarly declined are as follows:

 

kattu

- doer

gantu

- goer

sotu

- hearer

d±tu

- giver

netu

- leader

vattu

- sayer

jetu

- victor

vinetu

- disciplinarian

viññ±tu

- knower

bhattu

- husband

nattu

- grandson


N.B. Though bhattu and nattu are nouns expressing relationships they are declined like agent nouns such as satth±, as in Sanskrit.

 


  

3. Masculine nouns expressing relationships such as pitu (father), and bh±tu (brother) are declined somewhat differently as follows:

 

Pitu / pitar = father

 

 

Singular

Plural

Nom.

pit±

pitaro

Voc.

pit±, pita

pitaro

Acc.

pitara½

pitaro

Ins.

pitar±

pitarehi, pit³hi

Abl.

pitar±

pitarehi, pit³hi

Dat.

pitu, pituno

pitar±na½

Gen.

pitussa

pit³na½

Loc.

pitari

pitaresu, pit³su

 

Bh±tu / bh±tar = brother

 

 

Singular

Plural

Nom.

bh±t±

bh±taro

Voc.

bh±t±, bh±ta

bh±taro

Acc.

bh±tara½

bh±taro

Ins.

bh±tar±

bh±tarehi,bh±t³hi

Abl.

bh±tar±

bh±tarehi,bh±t³hi

Dat.

bh±tu, bh±tuno

bh±tar±na½

Gen.

bh±tussa

bh±t³na½

Loc.

bh±tari

bh±taresu,bh±t³su

                  


 

4. Feminine nouns expressing relationships are declined as follows:

  

M±tu / M±tar = mother

 

 

Singular

Plural

Nom.

m±t±

m±taro

Voc.

m±t±, m±ta, m±te

m±taro

Acc.

m±tara½

m±taro

Ins.

m±tar±, m±tuy±

m±tarehi, m±t³hi

Abl.

m±tar±, m±tuy±

m±tarehi, m±t³hi

Dat.

m±tu, m±tuy±, m±t±ya

m±tar±na½, m±t³na½,m±t±na½

Gen.

m±tu, m±tuy±, m±t±ya

m±tar±na½, m±t³na½,m±t±na½

Loc.

m±tari, m±tuy±, m±tuya½

m±taresu, m±t³su


Dh²tu (daughter) and duhitu (daughter) are similarly declined.

  


   

Exercise 28

 

5. Translate into English

 

1. Satth± bhikkh³na½ dhamma½ desento rukkhassa ch±y±ya nisinno hoti.
2. Puññ±ni katt±ro bhikkh³na½ ca t±pas±na½ ca d±na½ denti.
3. Sace satth± dhamma½ deseyya viññ±t±ro bhavissanti.
4. Bh³pati d²pasmi½ jet± bhavatu.
5. Pit± dh²tara½ ±d±ya vih±ra½ gantv± satth±ra½ vand±pesi.
6. Viññ±t±ro loke manuss±na½ net±ro hontu / bhavantu.
7. Bh±t± pitar± saddhi½ m±tuy± pacita½ y±gu½ bhuñji.
8. Bhatt± natt±rehi saha k²¼anta½ kapi½ disv± hasanto aµµh±si (stood).
9. Setu½ katt±ro ve¼avo bandhitv± nadiy± t²re µhapesu½.
10. Sindhu½ taritv± d²pa½ gant±ro satt³hi hat± honti.
11. Bhariy± bhattu s±µake rajakena dhov±pesi.
12. Netuno katha½ sot±ro uyy±ne nisinn± suriyena p²¼it± honti.
13. D±t±rehi dinn±ni vatth±ni y±cakehi na vikkiºitabb±ni honti.
14. Rodantassa nattussa kujjhitv± vanit± ta½ (him) hatthena pahari.
15. Vinetuno ov±da½ (advice) sutv± bandhavo sappuris± abhavi½su / ahesu½.
16. Gehesu ca aµav²su ca vasante ±khavo ahayo kh±danti.
17. Natt± m±tara½ y±gu½ y±canto bh³miya½ patitv± rodati.
18. Tumhe bh±tar±na½ ca bhagin²na½ ca m± kujjhatha.
19. D²pa½ gant±rehi n±v±ya sindhu taritabbo hoti.
20. Pubbak± (ancient) isayo mant±na½ (magic spells) katt±ro ca mant±na½ pavatt±ro (reciters) ca abhavi½su / ahesu½.
21. Mattaññ³ d±t± natt±r±na½ thoka½ thoka½ modake (sweets) dadi½su / ada½su.
22. Atthaññ³ net±ro manusse sappurise karont± vinet±ro bhavanti.
23. M±t± dh²tara½ ovadant² s²sa½ (head) cumbitv± (kissed) b±hu½ ±masitv± samass±sesi.
24. Vadaññ³ br±hmaºo khud±ya p²¼ente y±cake disv± pah³ta½ (much) bhojana½ (food) d±pesi.
25. S±rathin± ±haµe ve¼avo gahetv± va¹¹hak² s±la½ m±pesi.

 


   

6. Translate into P±li

 

1. Father and mother went with the brother to see the sister.
2. Evil doers will not live long happily.
3. May the king, together with his retinue, become victorious.
4. Mother´s brother is the uncle.
5. The enemies of my brothers tied banners on trees and bamboos.
6. The house builder gave bamboos to the grandsons.
7. Brother gave food to (my) daughter with a spoon.
8. The Buddha is the teacher of gods and men.
9. May you (pl.) be speakers of the truth.
10. Good husbands are kind (k±ruºik±) to their wives like gods.
11. Let good men become powerful ministers to govern the island.
12. The powerful kings were victorious.

 


  

 

 

 

                                                                      PREVIOUS LESSON | NEXT LESSON

  

                                                         PRONUNCIATION | VERBS | VOCABULARY | GLOSSARY

     

                                                                                       INDEX

 

 

 


Vipassana Research Institute
Vipassana Research Institute