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Vipassana Research Institute
Vocabulary
Vipassana Research Institute

 

                                                                                1. VOCABULARY

  


   

1. Masculine nouns ending in -a

   

ratha

vehicle, chariot

sakaµa

cart

hattha

hand

p±da

foot

magga

path

d²pa

island, lamp

s±vaka

disciple

samaºa

recluse, monk

sagga

heaven

assa

horse

miga

deer

sara

arrow

p±s±ºa

rock, stone

kakaca

saw

khagga

sword

cora

thief

paº¹ita

wise man

  


  

2. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a (contd.)

 

Instrumental case: The case ending -ena is added to the nominal base to form the instrumental singular. The case ending -ehi is added to form the instrumental plural; -ebhi is another archaic case ending that is sometimes added. A noun thus inflected expresses the idea ‘by´, ‘with´ or ‘through´.

 

Singular

 

1. nara + ena = narena (by means of the man)
2. m±tula + ena = m±tulena (with the uncle)
3. kassaka + ena = kassakena (through the farmer)

 

Plural

 

1. nara + ehi = narehi (narebhi)
2. m±tula + ehi = m±tulehi (m±tulebhi)
3. kassaka + ehi = kassakehi (kassakebhi)

Saddhi½ / saha meaning ‘with´ is also used with the instrumental case. They are not normally used with nouns denoting things.

 


  

3. Examples in sentence formation

   

Singular

   

1. Samaºo narena saddhi½ g±ma½ gacchati.
The monk goes to the village with the man.

2. Putto m±tulena saha canda½ passati.
The son sees the moon with his uncle.

3. Kassako kakacena rukkha½ chindati.
The farmer cuts the tree with a saw.

 

Plural

 

1. Samaº± narehi saddhi½ g±ma½ gacchanti.
Monks go to the village with men.

2. Putt± m±tulehi saha canda½ passanti.
Sons see the moon with uncles.

3. Kassak± kakacehi rukkhe chindanti.
Farmers cut trees with saws.

  


  

Exercise 3

   

4. Translate into English

   

1. Buddho s±vakehi saddhi½ vih±ra½ gacchati.
2. Puriso puttena saha d²pa½ dh±vati.
3. Kassako sarena sig±la½ vijjhati.
4. Br±hmaº± m±tulena saha pabbata½ ±ruhanti.
5. Putt± p±dehi kukkure paharanti.
6. M±tulo puttehi saddhi½ rathena g±ma½ ±gacchati.
7. Kum±r± hatthehi patte ±haranti.
8. Coro maggena assa½ harati.
9. Kassako ±v±µa½ oruhati.
10. Bh³p±l± paº¹itehi saha samaºe passanti.
11. Paº¹ito bh³p±lena saha Tath±gata½ vandati.
12. Putt± sah±yena saddhi½ odana½ bhuñjanti.
13. V±ºijo p±s±ºena miga½ paharati.
14. Sunakh± p±dehi ±v±µe khaºanti.
15. Br±hmaºo puttena saha suriya½ vandati.
16. Kassako soºehi saddhi½ rukkhe rakkhati.
17. Sugato s±vakehi saha vih±ra½ ±gacchati.
18. Y±cako pattena bhatta½ ±harati.
19. Paº¹it± sagga½ gacchanti.
20. Kum±r± assehi saddhi½ g±ma½ dh±vanti.
21. Coro khaggena nara½ paharati.
22. V±ºijo sakaµena d²pe ±harati.
23. Ass± maggena dh±vanti.
24. Sig±l± migehi saddhi½ pabbata½ dh±vanti.
25. Bh³p±lo paº¹itena saha manusse rakkhati.

 


  

5. Translate into P±li

 

1. The recluse sees the Buddha with his friend.
2. Disciples go to the monastery with the Buddha.
3. The horse runs to the mountain with the dogs.
4. The boy hits the lamp with a stone.
5. Merchants shoot deer with arrows.
6. Farmers dig pits with their hands.
7. Boys go to the monastery by chariot with their uncle.
8. The brahmin cooks rice with his friend.
9. The king protects the island with wise men.
10. Kings worship monks with their sons.
11. Thieves bring horses to the island.
12. Disciples climb mountains with men.
13. Merchants cut trees with farmers.
14. The beggar digs a pit with a friend.
15. The brahmin sees the moon with his uncles.
16. The thief hits the horse with a sword.
17. The son brings rice in a bowl.
18. Boys run to the mountain with their dogs.
19. Merchants come to the village by carts with farmers.
20. Uncles come to the monastery by chariots with their sons.
21. Jackals run to the mountain along the road.
22. Dogs dig pits with their feet.
23. The man carries a saw in his hand.
24. Recluses go to heaven.
25. The Buddha comes to the village with his disciples.

         

 

 


      

        

        

                                                                      

 

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