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Vipassana Research Institute
Vipassana Research Institute

1. Declension of Pronouns

 

There are:

 

Relative pronouns,   

demonstrative pronouns and   

interrogative pronouns   

of all three genders.

   

They are declined in all cases except the vocative. They become adjectives when they qualify other nouns.

 


  

2. Masculine gender, singular number

 

 

Relative Pronoun

Demonstrative Pronoun

Interrogative Pronoun

Nom.

yo = he who

so = he, that

ko = who

Acc.

ya½

ta½

ka½

Ins.

yena

tena

kena

Abl.

yamh±, yasm±

tamh±, tasm±

kasm±, kism±

Dat.

yassa

tassa

kassa, kissa

Gen.

yassa

tassa

kassa, kissa

Loc.

yamhi, yasmi½

tamhi, tasmi½

kamhi, kasmi½ kimhi, kismi½

 


 

3. Neuter Gender, singular number

    

 

 

Relative Pronoun

Demonstrative Pronoun

Interrogative Pronoun

Nom.

ya½ = that

ta½ = it, that

kim = which which

Acc.

ya½

ta½

kim

 

The rest is similar to the masculine declension

   


 

4. Feminine gender, singular number

 

 

 

Relative Pronoun

Demonstrative Pronoun

Interrogative Pronoun

Nom.

y± = she, who

s± = she, that

k± = who

Acc.

ya½

ta½

ka½

Ins.

y±ya

t±ya

k±ya

Abl.

y±ya

t±ya

k±ya

Dat.

yass±, y±ya

tass±, t±ya

kass±, k±ya

Gen.

yass±, y±ya

tass±, t±ya

kass±, k±ya

Loc.

yassa½, y±ya½

tassa½, t±ya½

kassa½, k±ya½

   


 

5. Masculine gender, plural number  

     

 

Relative Pronoun

Demonstrative Pronoun

Interrogative Pronoun

Nom.

ye = they, who

te = they, those

ke = who

Acc.

ye

te

ke

Ins.

yehi

tehi

kehi

Abl.

yehi

tehi

kehi

Dat.

yesa½(yes±na½)

tesa½ (tes±na½)

kesa½ (kes±na½)

Gen.

yesa½(yes±na½)

tesa½ (tes±na½)

kesa½ (kes±na½)

Loc.

yesu

tesu

kesu

   


 

6. Neuter gender, plural

   

 

Relative Pronoun

Demonstrative Pronoun

Interrogative Pronoun

Nom.

y±ni, ye = those, which

t±ni, te = those

k±ni, ke = which

Acc.

y±ni, ye

t±ni, te

k±ni, ke

 

The rest is similar to the masculine declension

  


 

7. Feminine gender, plural number

    

 

Relative Pronoun

Demonstrative Pronoun

Interrogative Pronoun

Nom.

y±, y±yo = they, who

t±, t±yo = they, those

k±, k±yo = who

Acc.

y±, y±

yo t±, t±yo

k±, k±yo

Ins.

y±hi

t±hi

k±hi

Abl.

y±hi

t±hi

k±hi

Dat.

y±sa½ (y±s±na½)

t±sa½ (t±s±na½)

k±sa½(k±s±na½)

Gen.

y±sa½ (y±s±na½)

t±sa½ (t±s±na½)

k±sa½(k±s±na½)

Loc.

y±su

t±su

k±su

      


 

8. The indefinite particle:

ci

 

The indefinite particle ci (Skt. cid) is appended to the case forms of the interrogative pronoun, expressing ideas such as anyone, whichever, whoever, e.g.

 

Masc.

koci puriso = some man;

kenaci purisena = by some man

 
Neut.

kiñci phala½ = some fruit;

kenaci phalena = by some fruit

 

Fem.

k±ci itthi = some woman;

k±yaci itthiy± = by, to, of, on some woman.

 



9. Pronominal Adverbs

 

Relative Adverbs

Demonstrative Adverbs

Interrogative Adverbs

yattha - where

tattha - there

kattha - where

yatra - where

tatra - there

kutra - where

yato - whence, where

tato - thence, therefore

kuto - whence

yath± - how, in what manner

tath± - in that manner

katha½ - how

yasm± - because

tasm± - therefore

kasm± - why

yad± - when

tad± - then

kad± - when

yena - where

tena - there

 

y±va - how long

t±va - so long

 

  


 

10.Examples in sentence formation

 

Yo atthaññu hoti so kum±re anus±situ½ ±gacchatu.
May he who is benevolent come to admonish the boys.

Ya½ aha½ ±kaªkham±no ahosi½ so ±gato hoti.
He whom I was expecting has come.

Yena maggena so ±gato tena gantu½ aha½ icch±mi.
By which road he came, I wish to go by the same.

Yassa s± bhariy± hoti so bhatt± puññavanto hoti.
He is a fortunate husband whose wife she is.

Yasmi½ hatthe daddu atthi tena hatthena patto na gaºhitabbo hoti.
The bowl should not be taken by the hand which has eczema on it.

Y±ni kamm±ni sukha½ ±vahanti (bring) t±ni puññ±ni honti.
Those actions which bring happiness are meritorious.

Y± bhariy± s²lavat² hoti s± bhattuno piy±yati.
The wife who is virtuous is dear to the husband.

Y±ya r±jiniy± s± v±p² k±r±pit± ta½ aha½ na anussar±mi.
I do not remember the queen by whom that tank was built.

Yassa½ sabh±ya½ so katha½ pavattesi tattha bah³ manuss± sannipatit± abhavi½su / ahesu½.
The meeting where he made a speech, there many people gathered.

Y±sa½ itth²na½ mañj³s±su suvaººa½ atthi t±yo dv±r±ni thaketv± gehehi nikkhamanti.
Those women in whose boxes there is gold close the doors and go out.

Y±su itth²su kodho natthi t±yo vin²t± bhariy±yo ca m±taro ca bhavanti.
Women in whom there is no anger become disciplined wives and mothers.

Yattha bh³patayo dhammik± honti tattha manuss± sukha½ vindanti.
Where kings are righteous, there the men enjoy happiness.

Yato bh±num± ravi loka½ obh±seti tato cakkhumant± r³p±ni passanti.
Since the radiant sun illuminates the world, (therefore) those who have eyes see objects.

Yath± Bhagav± dhamma½ deseti, tath± tumhehi paµipajjitabba½.
Just as the Blessed One preaches the doctrine, so should you conduct yourselves.

Yasm± pitaro rukkhe ropesu½, tasm± maya½ phal±ni bhuñj±ma.
Because fathers planted trees, (therefore) we enjoy fruits.

Y±da amhehi icchita½ patthita½ samijjhati tad± amhe mod±ma.
When our wishes and aspirations are fulfilled, then we are happy.

Ko tva½ asi? Ke tumhe hotha?
Who are you (sg.)?
Who are you (pl.)?

Kena dhenu aµaviy± ±n²t±?
By whom was the cow brought from the forest?

Kassa bh³patin± p±s±do k±r±pito?
For whom was the palace built by the king?

Kasm± amhehi sacca½ bh±sitabba½?
Why should we speak the truth?

Asappurisehi p±lite d²pe kuto maya½ dhammika½ vinet±ra½ labhiss±ma?
In an island governed by wicked men where will we get a righteous disciplinarian?

Kehi kata½ kamma½ disv± tumhe kujjhatha?
Seeing whose work (lit. done by whom) do you get angry?

Kesa½ natt±ro tuyha½ ov±de µhassanti?
Whose grandsons will stand by your advice?

Kehi ropit±su lat±su pupph±ni ca phal±ni ca bhavanti?
On the creepers planted by whom are there flowers and fruits?

K±ya itthiy± p±desu daddu atthi?
On the feet of which woman is there eczema?

   


  

Exercise 32

 

11. Translate into English

 

1. Yass± so putto hoti s± m±t± puññavat² hoti.
2. Yo ta½ d²pa½ p±leti so dhammiko bh³pati hoti.
3. Kena ajja (today) nava½ (new) j²vitamagga½ na pariyesitabba½?
4. Sace tumhe asappuris± loka½ d³seyy±tha (pollute) kattha puttadh²tarehi saddhi½ tumhe vasatha?
5. Yad± bhikkhavo sannipatitv± s±l±ya½ kilañj±su nis²di½su tad± Buddho p±visi.
6. Yasmi½ padese Buddho viharati tattha gantu½ aha½ icch±mi.
7. Y±ya½ guh±ya½ s²h± vasanti ta½ pasavo na upasaªkamanti.
8. Yo dhanav± hoti, tena s²lavat± bhavitabba½.
9. Sace tumhe ma½ pañha½ pucchissatha aha½ vissajjetu½ (to explain) ussahiss±mi.
10. Yattha s²lavant± bhikkhavo vasanti tattha manuss± sappuris± honti.
11. Kad± tva½ m±tara½ passitu½ bhariy±ya saddhi½ gacchasi?
12. Y±hi rukkh± chinn± t±yo pucchitu½ kassako ±gato hoti.
13. Katha½ tumhe udadhi½ taritu½ ±kaªkhatha?
14. Kuto t± itthiyo maºayo ±hari½su?
15. Y±su mañj³s±su aha½ suvaººa½ nikkhipi½ t± cor± coresu½.
16. Yo ajja nagara½ gacchati so tar³su ketavo passissati.
17. Yassa may± y±gu p³jit± so bhikkhu tava putto hoti.
18. Kuto aha½ dhammassa viññ±t±ra½ paññavanta½ bhikkhu½ labhiss±mi?
19. Yasm± so bhikkh³su pabbaji, tasm± s± pi pabbajitu½ icchati.
20. Ya½ aha½ j±n±mi tumhe pi ta½ j±n±tha.
21. Y±sa½ itth²na½ dhana½ so icchati t±hi ta½ labhitu½ so na sakkoti.
22. Yato amh±ka½ bh³pati arayo par±jesi tasm± maya½ tar³su ketavo bandhimha.
23. Kad± amh±ka½ patthan± (aspirations) samijjhanti?
24. Sabbe te sappuris± tesa½ pañhe vissajjetu½ v±yamant± s±l±ya nisinn± honti.
25. Sace tva½ dv±ra½ thakesi aha½ pavisitu½ na sakkomi.
26. Amhehi kat±ni kamm±ni ch±y±yo viya amhe anubandhanti.
27. Susavo m±tara½ rakkhanti.
28. Aha½ s±min± saddhi½ gehe viharant² mod±mi.
29. Tumh±ka½ putt± ca dh²taro ca udadhi½ taritv± bhaº¹±ni vikkiºant± m³la½ pariyesitu½ icchanti.
30. Tva½ sura½ pivasi, tasm± s± tava kujjhati.

 


 

12. Translate into P±li

 

1. He who is virtuous will defeat the enemy.
2. The girl who spoke at the meeting is not a relation of mine.
3. When the mother comes home the daughter will give the gems.
4. The dog to whom I gave rice is my brother´s.
5. Why did you not come home today to worship the monks?
6. From where did you get the robes which you offered to the monks?
7. Whom did you give the gold which I gave you?
8. Eat what you like.
9. I will sit on the rock until you bathe in the river.
10. Where intelligent people live there I wish to dwell.

 


 

 

 

 

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Vipassana Research Institute