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1. Declension of masculine nouns ending in -a (contd.)

 
Vocative Case: The uninflected nominal base is used as the vocative singular.

The case ending -± is added to form the vocative plural.

 

Singular

 

1. nara (O man)
2. m±tula (O uncle)
3. kassaka (O farmer)

 

Plural

 

nara + ± = nar± (O men)

m±tula + ± = m±tul± (O uncles)

kassaka + ± = kassak± (O farmers)

   


     

2. The full paradigm of the declension of masculine nouns ending in -a

Nara = man

  

 

Singular

Plural

Nominative

naro

nar±

Accusative

nara½

nare

Insrumental

narena

narehi (narebhi)

Ablative

nar±, naramh±, narasm±

narehi (narebhi)

Dative

nar±ya, narassa

nar±na½

Genitive

narassa

nar±na½

Locative

nare, naramhi, narasmi½

naresu

Vocative

nara

nar±

  


   

3. Declension of neuter nouns ending in -a

Phala = fruit

  

 

Singular

Plural

Nominative

phala½

phal±, phal±ni

Accusative

phala½

phale, phal±ni

Vocative

phala

phal±ni

  

 

The rest is similar to the declension of masculine nouns ending in -a.

 


   

4. Vocabulary

 
1. Neuter nouns ending in -a

  

nayana / locana

eye

udaka / jala

water

arañña / vana

forest

puppha / kusuma

flower

geha / ghara

house

±sana

seat

paººa

leaf

tiºa

grass

kh²ra

milk

nagara

city, town

uyy±na

park

khetta

field

bhaº¹a

goods

s²la

virtue, precept

d±na

alms, charity

r³pa

object

dv±ra

door

vattha

cloth

   


  

2. Verbs

  

vivarati

opens

naccati

dances

nikkhipati

puts

uµµhahati

gets up

phusati

touches

anus±sati

instructs

ovadati

advises

sa½harati

collects

±siñcati

sprinkles

akkosati

scolds

bhindati

breaks

pibati / pivati

drinks

  


  

Exercise 8

   

4. Translate into English

 

1. Up±sako pupph±ni ±harati.
2. Araññe mig± vasanti, rukkhesu makkaµ± caranti.
3. Goº± tiºa½ kh±danti.
4. Manuss± nayanehi passanti.
5. Samaºo vih±rasmi½ ±sane nis²dati.
6. Rukkhamh± paºº±ni patanti.
7. V±ºij± g±mamh± kh²ra½ nagara½ haranti.
8. Bh³p±lo kum±rena saddhi½ uyy±ne carati.
9. Kassako khettamhi kudd±lena ±v±µe khaºati.
10. M±tulo puttassa bhaº¹±ni dad±ti.
11. Up±sak± samaº±na½ d±na½ dadanti, s²l±ni rakkhanti.
12. D±rak± mittehi saddhi½ udakasmi½ k²¼anti.
13. Kassak± v±ºijehi vatth±ni labhanti.
14. Kum±ro uyy±namh± m±tulassa kusum±ni ±harati.
15. Br±hmaºassa aj± goºehi saha vane ±hiº¹anti, tiº±ni kh±danti.
16. S²ho vanasmi½ rukkham³le (at the foot of a tree) nis²dati.
17. Rajak± udakena ±san±ni dhovanti.
18. Amacco d³tena saddhi½ rathena arañña½ pavisati.
19. Y±cakassa putto udakena paºº±ni dhovati.
20. V±ºij± bhaº¹±ni nagaramh± g±ma½ ±haranti.
21. Tath±gatassa s±vak± asappuris±na½ putte anus±santi.
22. Up±sak± udakena pupph±ni ±siñcanti.
23. Kum±ro patta½ bhindati, m±tulo akkosati.
24. Luddakassa putto migassa k±ya½ hatthena phusati.
25. Goºo khette p±s±ºamh± uµµhahati.
26. Rajakassa putto s±µake mañcasmi½ nikkhipati.
27. Sugatassa s±vako vih±rassa dv±ra½ vivarati.
28. Vejjassa d±rak± gehe naccanti.
29. Paº¹ito asappurisa½ ovadati.
30. Coro ±cariyassa sakaµa½ pabbatasmi½ pajahati.

    


  

5. Translate into P±li

    

1. Children play in the water with the dog.
2. The wicked man breaks leaves from the tree.
3. Kings go in vehicles to the park with their ministers.
4. Merchants set out from the city with goods.
5. Virtuous men give alms to monks.
6. Disciples of the Buddha assemble in the park with lay devotees.
7. The thief gets down from the tree in the forest.
8. Wicked men hit the monkeys on the trees with stones.
9. The doctor´s horse eats grass with the ox on the road.
10. Jackals live in forests, dogs live in villages.
11. Brahmins sit on seats in the house of the wise man.
12. The sailor opens the doors of his house.
13. The sons of fishermen dance with friends in the park.
14. The merchant puts fish in baskets.
15. The world gets light from the sun.
16. Sailors get up from their seats.
17. The doctor´s friend touches the body of the dog with his foot.
18. The Buddha instructs his disciples in the monastery.
19. Boys collect flowers from the park, lay devotees sprinkle them with water.
20. The parrot flies into the sky from the house of the sailor.
21. The thief cuts a tree with a saw, the farmer scolds (him).
22. The wise man advises the merchant, the merchant is pleased with the wise man.
23. The king´s messenger comes out of the sea with the sailor.
24. Merchants bring clothes for farmers from the city.
25. Gods protect virtuous men. Good men protect virtues.
26. Men see objects with their eyes with (the help of) the light of the sun.
27. Leaves from the trees fall on the road.
28. Lay devotees place flowers on altars (pupph±sana).
29. Goats drink water from pits in the field.
30. The lions get up from the rock at the foot of the tree (rukkham³la).

     


 

 

 

 

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