Vipassana Research Institute

Font Size:   Default   +1   +2

 

Vipassana Research Institute
Vipassana Research Institute

 

 

 

  

1. The Gerund, the Absolutive or the Indeclinable Participle

    

The suffix -tv± is added to the root of the verb or verbal base* with or sometimes without the connecting vowel -i- to form the gerund, absolutive or the indeclinable participle.

    

pac + i + tv± =

pacitv± =

having cooked

kh±d + i + tv± =

kh±ditv± =

having eaten

gam + tv±=

gantv± =

having gone

han + tv± =

hantv± =

having killed

    

* The root is the simplest element of a verb without prefixes, suffixes or terminations. These are normally given in Sanskrit in grammars by Western scholars. The base is formed by adding a suffix to the root before a termination. For example:

    

pac is the root

paca is the base

kh±d is the root

kh±da is the base

bhuj is the root

bhuñja is the base

gam is the root

gaccha is the base

 


 

The suffix -ya is sometimes added to roots with a prefix.

  

± + gam + ya =

±gamma (with assimilation) =

having come

± + d± + ya =

±d±ya =

having taken

± + ruh + ya =

±ruyha (with metathesis) =

having climbed

ava + ruh + ya =

oruyha (with metathesis) =

having descended

  



2. Attention may be paid to the following forms:

   

bhuñjati

- bhuñjitv±, bhutv±

±gacchati

- ±gantv±, ±gamma

hanati

- hanitv±, hantv±

dad±ti

- daditv±, datv±

nah±yati

- nah±yitv±, nah±tv±

tiµµhati

- µhatv±

nikkhamati

- nikkhamitv±, nikkhamma

pajahati

- pajahitv±, pah±ya

passati

- passitv±; but disv± is more commonly used from the root d¥œ to see, instead of passitv±.

uµµhahati

- uµµhahitv±, uµµh±ya

    


  

3. Examples in sentence formation

  

1. Kassako khettamh± ±gantv± bhatta½ bhuñjati.
The farmer, having come from the field, eats rice.

2. V±nar± rukkha½ ±ruyha phal±ni kh±danti.
Having climbed the tree, monkeys eat fruits.

3. D±rako bhatta½ y±citv± rodati.
Having asked for rice, the child cries.

4. Samaºo Buddha½ passitv± vandati.
Having seen the Buddha, the recluse worships (him).

 


  

Exercise 9

  
4. Translate into English

  

1. Up±sako vih±ra½ gantv± samaº±na½ d±na½ dad±ti.
2. S±vako ±sanamhi nis²ditv± p±de dhovati.
3. D±rak± pupph±ni sa½haritv± m±tulassa datv± hasanti.
4. Y±cak± uyy±namh± ±gamma kassakasm± odana½ y±canti.
5. Luddako hatthena sare ±d±ya arañña½ pavisati.
6. Kum±r± kukkurena saddhi½ k²¼itv± samudda½ gantv± nah±yanti.
7. V±ºijo p±s±ºasmi½ µhatv± kudd±lena sappa½ paharati.
8. Sappuriso y±cakassa putte pakkositv± vatth±ni dad±ti.
9. D±rako ±v±µamhi patitv± rodati.
10. Bh³p±lo p±s±damh± nikkhamitv± amaccena saddhi½ bh±sati.
11. Sunakho udaka½ pivitv± gehamh± nikkhamma magge sayati.
12. Samaº± bh³p±lassa uyy±ne sannipatitv± dhamma½ bh±santi.
13. Putto nah±tv± bhatta½ bhutv± mañca½ ±ruyha sayati.
14. V±ºij± d²pamh± nagara½ ±gamma ±cariyassa gehe vasanti.
15. Rajako vatth±ni dhovitv± putta½ pakkosati.
16. V±nar± rukkhehi oruyha uyy±ne ±hiº¹anti.
17. Mig± vanamhi ±hiº¹itv± paºº±ni kh±danti.
18. Kum±ro nayan±ni dhovitv± suriya½ passati.
19. N±vikassa mitt± nagarasm± bhaº¹±ni ±d±ya g±ma½ ±gacchanti.
20. D±rako kh²ra½ pivitv± gehamh± nikkhamma hasati.
21. Sappuris± d±n±ni datv± s²l±ni rakkhitv± sagga½ gacchanti.
22. S³karo udakamh± uttaritv± ±v±µa½ oruyha sayati.
23. T±paso Tath±gatassa s±vaka½ disv± vanditv± pañha½ pucchati.
24. Asappuriso y±cakassa patta½ bhinditv± akkositv± geha½ gacchati.
25. Sakuº± g±me rukkhehi uppatitv± arañña½ otaranti.
26. Paº¹ito ±sanamh± uµµhahitv± t±pasena saddhi½ bh±sati.
27. D±rako geh± nikkhamma m±tula½ pakkositv± geha½ pavisati.
28. Dev± sappurisesu pas²ditv± te (them) rakkhanti.
29. Kum±rassa sah±yak± p±s±da½ ±ruyha ±sanesu nis²danti.
30. Goº± khettamhi ±hiº¹itv± tiºa½ kh±ditv± sayanti.

  


   

5. Translate into P±li

  

1. Having gone out of the house the farmer enters the field.
2. Having preached (deseti)the doctrine, the Buddha enters the monastery.
3. The king having been pleased with the Buddha, abandons the palace and goes to the monastery.
4. Having climbed down from the stairway, the child laughs.
5. Having hit the serpent with a stone the boy runs into the house.
6. Having gone to the forest the man climbs a tree and eats fruits.
7. Having washed the clothes in the water, the washerman brings (them) home.
8. The lion having killed a goat, eats having sat on a rock.
9. The doctor having seen the merchants´ goods leaves the city.
10. Having broken (into) the house thieves run to the forest.
11. Having roamed in the field the pig falls into a pit.
12. The fisherman brings fish from the sea for farmers.
13. Having taken goods from the city, the teacher comes home.
14. Having stood on a mountain, the hunter shoots birds with arrows.
15. The oxen having eaten grass in the park, sleep on the road.
16. The king having got down from the chariot speaks with the farmers.
17. The man having given up his house enters the monastery.
18. Fishermen give fish to merchants and receive profits.
19. The lay devotee having asked a question from the monk sits on his seat.
20. The disciples of the Buddha, having seen the wicked men, admonish.
21. The brahmin, having scolded the child, hits (him).
22. The deities, having asked questions from the Buddha, become glad.
23. The dog, having bitten the teacher´s foot, runs into the house.
24. The monkey, having played with the goat on the road, climbs a tree.
25. The hermit, having come from the forest, receives a cloth from the good man.
26. Having drunk water, the child breaks the bowl.
27. Having advised the farmers´ sons, and having risen from the seats, the monks go to the monastery.
28. The sailor, having crossed the sea, goes to the island.
29. The child calls the uncles and dances in the house.
30. Having washed clothes and bathed, the farmer gets out of water.

  


  

  

 

 

                                                                     PREVIOUS LESSON | NEXT LESSON

     

                                                         PRONUNCIATION | VERBS | VOCABULARY | GLOSSARY

     

                                                                                        INDEX

 

 

 


Vipassana Research Institute
Vipassana Research Institute