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Vipassana Research Institute
Vipassana Research Institute


1. Aguttara Nikāya. 1.134


2. Jātaka. 1.69 (P.T.S.) London


3. Dīgha Nikāya. 1.16


4. Vinaya Piaka. 1.3


5. Dhammapada. Verses 153, 154


6. Vinaya Piaka. 1.5


7. Vinaya Piaka. 1.13 (see Teaching of the Buddha)


8. Vinaya Piaka. 1.16


9. Vinaya Piaka. 23/26


10. Vinaya Piaka. 1.23 "Caratha, bhikkhave, cārika bahujana-hitāya bahujana-sukhāya lokānukampāya, atthāyahitāyasukhāya devamanussāna. Mā ekena dve agamittha."


11. Vinaya Piaka. 1.23


12. Vinaya Piaka. 25


13. Vinaya Piaka. 38


14. Dīgha Nikāya. 2.119


15. Vinaya Piaka. 1.13


16. Dukkha ariya-sacca

Dukkha-samudaya ariya-sacca

Dukkha-nirodha ariya-sacca

Dukkha-nirodha-gāminī-paipadā ariya-sacca


17. Khuddaka Nikāya. 1.383


18. Khuddaka Nikāya. 1.383


19. Imasmi sati, ida hoti;

imasmi asati, ida na hoti.

Imassa uppādā, ida upajjati;

imassa nirodhā, ida nirujjhati.


20. Vinaya Piaka. 1.3

21. Sayutta Nikāya. 4.195


22. According to the Theravada tradition Buddhavacana (the words of the Buddha) are contained in the Tipiaka (in Pāli), or the three baskets, which consists of:

i) Vinaya Piaka, which contains rules and regulations pertaining to monks and nuns.

ii) Sutta Piaka, which contains the popular discourses on Dhamma which the Buddha gave during his forty-five years of teaching.

iii) Abhidhamma Piaka, which contains teachings of the Buddha analysed and synthesized in a special format. They are all available in Pāli language.


23. According to the Mahāyāna tradition the Fourth Council was held under the auspices of Kaniśhka in India about 100 A.D.


24. 2,500 years of Buddhism, edited by Prof. P.V. Bapat, p. 47

(All references are from Pāli Tipiaka, Nālandā edition except those specified.)




Vipassana Research Institute
Vipassana Research Institute